Biome Diversity

Boreal Forests

Jacob Saroli
Climate
-Also called Evergreen coniferous forests or taigas
-Found in the arctic tundra in northern regions across North America, Asia, and Europe
-Winters are long, dry, and extremely cold
-Usually 50-100 frost free days
-Records have shown the temperature to be -100 degrees Fahrenheit
-In the northernmost taiga, sunlight is available only 6-8 hours a day
-Summers are short, with mild to warm temperatures

Plant Adaptations
-The small, needle-shaped, waxy-coated leaves of coniferous evergreen trees can withstand the intense cold and drought of winter when snow blankets the ground.
-Some Boreal Forest plants have adapted around the cold, harsh winters, and can extend their growing season
-Most Boreal Forest trees have a shallow root system so they can grow in soil that is not frozen. Black spruce trees can grow in soil at only 20 inches deep.
-Evergreens can also photosynthesize slowly when there is light
-Trees develop thick bark that protects against ground fires
-Examples include: Gymnosperm Trees, Evergreen trees, the deciduous alder, birch, and aspen

Animal Adaptations
-Many Boreal Forest animals hibernate during the harsh winters
-Many animals have developed an extra layer of fur to protect themselves from the bitter cold
-Some animals such as the snowshoe hare change their colors to blend in with the snow in order to reduce the chance of them being hunted
-Animals such as the Lynx have developed snowshoes in order to protect them from the snow
-Moose have adapted to being so large that even the coldest days do not affect them

Symbiotic Relationships- SAUL LEVIN

Commensalism
Pseudoscorpions ride on brown bears for transportation. (An example of Phoresy)
A bald eagle doesn't affect a tree by making a nest in it.

Parasitism
Winter Ticks live on moose and other similar animals causing mild to severe disease.
Brainworms eat Caribou's brains and unintentionally kill them.

Mutualism
Moss protects the tree it grows on while the tree gives it a place to live.
Fungus and algae work together to survive by combining to make lichen.

Predation
Moose, Elk-------->Wolf
Insect------>Small Bird------->Owl
Squirrell------->Fox------>Lynx
Snowshoe Rabbit-------->Wolverine


Deciduous Forests

Sara Benson

external image map.jpg




Climate:
  • Moist Continental Climate
  • Latitude range from 23 degrees north to 38 degrees south
  • Moderate temperatures that change significantly with the season
  • Long, warm summers and cold, but not too severe winters
  • Abundant precipitation

external image decid_forest.jpg

5 Plant Adaptions
  • Broad Leaves on a Tree Capture Enough Sunlight to Sustain the Tree
    • Maple Trees have very broad leaves that allow them to capture lots of sunlight to sustain themselves
  • Thick Bark To Protect Against Cold Winters
    • Oak Trees have very thick bark so they are able to sustain themselves during winter months
  • Trees Drop Leaves in Fall to Minimize Water Loss
    • Hickory Trees drop their leaves in the fall and regrow them in the spring
  • Wildflowers Grow in the Early Spring on the Forest Floor Before the Trees Drop Their Leaves and Drown Them Out
    • The yellow marsh marigold flower grows on the forest floor in the spring before the leaves drop in the fall and cover them
  • Understory Trees Are More Tolerant to Shade Than Canopy Trees
    • Sycamore trees are taller than Oak trees and therefore the Oak trees are more tolerant to shade.
external image 220px-Acer_pseudoplatanus_002.jpg

5 Animal Adaptions
  • Many Birds Migrate to Warmer Places So They Can Find Food More Easily
    • Bald eagles migrate south for winter months and return for spring
  • Mammals Hibernate In Cold Winter Months
    • Bears hibernate in caves during winter months
  • Animals Store Large Amounts of Food For Cold Winter Months
    • Squirrels store nuts in trees for winter months
  • Animals Grow Extra Fur for Winter Months
    • Wolves grow a thick coat of fur during the fall to keep them warm during the winter and shed it in the spring
  • Change in Fur Color with Change of Seasons
    • Rabbits change fur color from brown to white with the change of seasons to camouflage from predators
external image bird-migration.jpg

Symbiotic Relationships
  • Predator/Prey-
    • Producers: Mountain Winterberry, White Oak, Shagbark Hickory
    • Primary Consumers: Gray Squirrel, Long-tailed Weasel, May Beetle, White-Foodted Mouse
    • Secondary Consumers: Wood Frog, Racer, Long-tailed weasel, Broad-winged hawk, Hairy Woodpecker
    • Decomposers: Fungi, Bacteria
  • Parasitism
    • Parasitism occurs in a deciduous forest between fungi and a tree. Fungus grows on trees and breaks them down for nutrients, this harms the tree, therefore making it weaker.This benefits the fungus and harms the tree.
    • Parasitism also occurs between a caterpillar and a wasp. Caterpillars lay eggs on leaves and wasps inject them so that their larvae can feed inside the body of the caterpillar, but avoid vital organs. This harms the caterpillar and benefits the wasp larvae.
  • Commensalism
    • The relationship between a squirrel and a tree in a is a commensalism relationship in a deciduous forest.The squirrel is given a home and shelter by the tree and is not harmed in any way
    • The relationship between a bird and a tree is also commensalism because the bird is able to build a nest and thrive in this environment provided by the tree. This benefits the bird and does not harm the tree.
  • Mutualism
    • Bees and flowers participate in a mutualism relationship in deciduous forests. They engage in pollination which benefits the bees because it gives them food and also benefits the flowers because they are able to sexually reproduce for greater genetic diversity
    • The relationship between a bird and deer is also mutualism because the bird is able to get food by eating bugs off the fur of the deer and the deer benefits from being cleaned

Temperate Grassland

Lenny Gross

Climate:

The climate of temperate grasslands are semiarid. In a temperate grassland, you should expect anything between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation per year, much of it being snow. During the summer, it's mostly warm but will vary depending on the latitude of the grassland.

external image grasslands_lrg.jpg











Plant Adaptations:
  • The ironweed has adapted to be more colorful so that it can attract more pollinators.
  • Blue grass has developed long roots that stretch deep into the soil in order to tap into the water that has over time percolated into the ground.
  • The Joe Pye Weed has an extremely soft stem so that it is able to swing in the wind because of the heavy breezes that can easily swoop over the flatlands.
  • The Common Ragweed in the temperate grassland biome has taken advantage of the wind, and uses the wind to send its seeds away. It produces multiple billions of grains of pollin annually.
  • The Dogbane plant has developed long root systems not only so it can tap into the water system, but also so grazing animals cannot easliy remove the plant.
external image Ironweed.jpg
(an Ironweed plant)

Animal Adaptations
  • The Zebra has developed very thin skin to let the heat out and stay cool. It also has mainly white skin to reflect back some of the sunlight. Zebras also developed stripes so as a group, predators find them harder to catch. Zebras also have adapted to have long legs and be able to run very fast.
  • The lions brown skin helps them blend in with their flatland, mostly brown vegetated, environment. They've developed a very acute sense of smell and very sharp teeth in order to cut the flesh of its prey. The lion has also adapted to have strong hind legs to be able to run after its prey more effectively.
  • Prairie dogs, like the lion, have developed strong hind legs, but instead of using them for hunting like the lion, the prairie dog uses them to stand up and look out for predators.
  • The gray wolf has developed a very acute sense of hearing, smell, and sight. The gray wolf has also developed an extremely powerful jaw so that its teeth can literally rip flesh right off of bone. The wolfs body, also, over time has adapted to have more stamina and built for endurance.
  • The gazelle has developed very strong legs to be able to sprint (in some cases according to national geographic) up to 40 miles per hour. Their medium size also means less skin area for excess moisture loss through evaporation.

external image 220px-Zebra_Botswana_edit02.jpg
(a group of zebras grazing on the grassland)

Symbiotic Relationships

Predator Prey:
The lion and the gazelle. The lion stalks the herd of gazelle until they are most vunerable and than choose to strike. Possibly when they are eating or grazing.

Parasitism:
  1. The deer tick and the deer. The tick attaches itself to the deer where it feeds off the host, embeds its eggs under the skin of the host, and survives from it without killing it.
  2. The brown headed cowbird and other grassland birds. The brown headed cowbird will lay it's eggs in other nets of birds and raise all the birds in that other species nest.
Commensalism:
  1. The cattle and the cattle egret. While the cattle graze, they unintentionally disturb insect life in the areas in which they pass through. The cattle egret feast off the already dead insects and benefit from it, while the cattle remain unaffected by the other organisms actions.
  2. Nurseplant and small seedlings. When plants are beginning to grow, and they are victim to the harsh sun and bitter col, they often die. When a nurseplant is present, its long leaves protect the small seedlings from the blistering sun and tough grassland winters.
Mutualism:
  1. Bacteria and herbivores. Herbivores like the cow have trouble breaking down celulose, so small bacteria in there stomach help break it down. The bacteria is benefitting because it is housed and has nutrients to survive on and the cow is benefitting because its stomach contents are being broken down.
  2. The oxpecker and the rinoceros. The oxpecker rides on the rino and eats off the ticks that have laid eggs and have been feeding off that rino. They also let out a loud skreach when danger is approaching because they have much better eyesight than the rino. The bird benefits because he has protection on the rino, and also has something to eat, and rino is benefiting because he is becoming tick-free.

Temperate Grassland

Lenny Gross

Climate:

The climate of temperate grasslands are semiarid. In a temperate grassland, you should expect anything between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation per year, much of it being snow. During the summer, it's mostly warm but will vary depending on the latitude of the grassland.

external image grasslands_lrg.jpg











Plant Adaptations:
  • The ironweed has adapted to be more colorful so that it can attract more pollinators.
  • Blue grass has developed long roots that stretch deep into the soil in order to tap into the water that has over time percolated into the ground.
  • The Joe Pye Weed has an extremely soft stem so that it is able to swing in the wind because of the heavy breezes that can easily swoop over the flatlands.
  • The Common Ragweed in the temperate grassland biome has taken advantage of the wind, and uses the wind to send its seeds away. It produces multiple billions of grains of pollin annually.
  • The Dogbane plant has developed long root systems not only so it can tap into the water system, but also so grazing animals cannot easliy remove the plant.
external image Ironweed.jpg
(an Ironweed plant)

Animal Adaptations
  • The Zebra has developed very thin skin to let the heat out and stay cool. It also has mainly white skin to reflect back some of the sunlight. Zebras also developed stripes so as a group, predators find them harder to catch. Zebras also have adapted to have long legs and be able to run very fast.
  • The lions brown skin helps them blend in with their flatland, mostly brown vegetated, environment. They've developed a very acute sense of smell and very sharp teeth in order to cut the flesh of its prey. The lion has also adapted to have strong hind legs to be able to run after its prey more effectively.
  • Prairie dogs, like the lion, have developed strong hind legs, but instead of using them for hunting like the lion, the prairie dog uses them to stand up and look out for predators.
  • The gray wolf has developed a very acute sense of hearing, smell, and sight. The gray wolf has also developed an extremely powerful jaw so that its teeth can literally rip flesh right off of bone. The wolfs body, also, over time has adapted to have more stamina and built for endurance.
  • The gazelle has developed very strong legs to be able to sprint (in some cases according to national geographic) up to 40 miles per hour. Their medium size also means less skin area for excess moisture loss through evaporation.

external image 220px-Zebra_Botswana_edit02.jpg
(a group of zebras grazing on the grassland)

Symbiotic Relationships

Predator Prey:
The lion and the gazelle. The lion stalks the herd of gazelle until they are most vunerable and than choose to strike. Possibly when they are eating or grazing.

Parasitism:
  1. The deer tick and the deer. The tick attaches itself to the deer where it feeds off the host, embeds its eggs under the skin of the host, and survives from it without killing it.
  2. The brown headed cowbird and other grassland birds. The brown headed cowbird will lay it's eggs in other nets of birds and raise all the birds in that other species nest.
Commensalism:
  1. The cattle and the cattle egret. While the cattle graze, they unintentionally disturb insect life in the areas in which they pass through. The cattle egret feast off the already dead insects and benefit from it, while the cattle remain unaffected by the other organisms actions.
  2. Nurseplant and small seedlings. When plants are beginning to grow, and they are victim to the harsh sun and bitter col, they often die. When a nurseplant is present, its long leaves protect the small seedlings from the blistering sun and tough grassland winters.
Mutualism:
  1. Bacteria and herbivores. Herbivores like the cow have trouble breaking down celulose, so small bacteria in there stomach help break it down. The bacteria is benefitting because it is housed and has nutrients to survive on and the cow is benefitting because its stomach contents are being broken down.
  2. The oxpecker and the rinoceros. The oxpecker rides on the rino and eats off the ticks that have laid eggs and have been feeding off that rino. They also let out a loud skreach when danger is approaching because they have much better eyesight than the rino. The bird benefits because he has protection on the rino, and also has something to eat, and rino is benefiting because he is becoming tick-free.





Biodiversity Data


Teacher lot excel book for 3rd hour (from mikaela):
Teacher Lot
n
P
NATURAL LOG
p((ln)(p))
Accura MDX
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Buick Century
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Cevy Express
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Cevy Equinox
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Cevy Aved
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Chevy Traverse
2
0.026667
-3.624340933
-0.09665
Chevy Express
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Chevy Cruise
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Chevy Malibu
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Chevy Trailblazer
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Chevy Impala
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Chrsler T &C
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Dodge Caravan
3
0.04
-3.218875825
-0.12876
Dodge Journey
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Dodge Neon
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Ford Escape
7
0.093333
-2.371577964
-0.22135
Ford Explorer
3
0.04
-3.218875825
-0.12876
Ford Fusion
5
0.066667
-2.708050201
-0.18054
Ford Focus
2
0.026667
-3.624340933
-0.09665
Ford Ranger
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Ford Alask
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Ford F150
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Ford Tourus
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
GMC Aeadia
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
GMC 2500
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Hndai XG
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Honda Accord
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Hundai Atlanta
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Honda CRV
2
0.026667
-3.624340933
-0.09665
Honda Cinc
2
0.026667
-3.624340933
-0.09665
Hundai Oddessey
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Honda Pilot
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Honda Victory
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Jeep Loredo
2
0.026667
-3.624340933
-0.09665
Lexus 350
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
LincolN MKZ
2
0.026667
-3.624340933
-0.09665
Linclon MKX
2
0.026667
-3.624340933
-0.09665
Mercury Suple
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Mazda 5
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Mazda 3
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Nissan Altama
4
0.053333
-2.931193752
-0.15633
Maz 6
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Grand Prix
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Pontiac Vibe
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Pontiac Bonnevile
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Mercury Mountaineer
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Toyota Camry
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Scion XA
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Toyota Cruiser
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Volvo X60
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
Volvo v50
1
0.013333
-4.317488114
-0.05757
TOTAL # OF INDIV.
75


-3.73736

Teacher Lot Excel Book from 4th Hour
Specie Name
Number of Individuals
p
ln(p)
p(ln(p))
Acura MDX
3
0.036145
-3.32023
-0.12001
Buick Century
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Chevy Aveo
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Chevy Traverse
3
0.036145
-3.32023
-0.12001
Dodge Neon
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Dodge Caravan
4
0.048193
-3.03255
-0.14615
Ford Explorer
4
0.048193
-3.03255
-0.14615
Ford Fusion
4
0.048193
-3.03255
-0.14615
Ford Focus
3
0.036145
-3.32023
-0.12001
Chevy Equinox
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Jeep Cherokee
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Jeep Liberty
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Chevy Blazer
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Lincol MKZ
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Nissan Altima
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Chevy Malibu
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Subaru Forester
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Toyota Camry
2
0.024096
-3.72569
-0.08978
Toyota Rava
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Volkswagen Routan
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Volvo XC
2
0.024096
-3.72569
-0.08978
Chevy Impala
2
0.024096
-3.72569
-0.08978
Chrystler Town & Country
2
0.024096
-3.72569
-0.08978
Dodge Journey
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Dodge Challenger
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Dodge Durango
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Ford Escape
7
0.084337
-2.47293
-0.20856
Ford Taurus
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Ford F150
3
0.036145
-3.32023
-0.12001
Ford Ranger
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
GMC Terrain
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Honda Accord
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Honda Civic
2
0.024096
-3.72569
-0.08978
Honda CRV
2
0.024096
-3.72569
-0.08978
Hyundai XG350L
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Honda Pilot
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Honda Fit
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Jeep Loredo
3
0.036145
-3.32023
-0.12001
Lexus RX350
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Lincoln MKX
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Mercury Sable
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Mercury Villager
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Mercury Mountaineer
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Mazda S
3
0.036145
-3.32023
-0.12001
Pontiac Grand Prix
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Pontiac Grand Am
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Pontiac Vibe
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Scion
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Saturn Ion
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324
Volkswagen Jetta
1
0.012048
-4.41884
-0.05324

83


-3.71583
3rd Hour Student Lot :Andrew

i
Species Name
Number of Individuals
P
ln(P)
P(ln(P))
1
Acura 3.5 RL
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
2
Acura TL
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
3
Acura TSX
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
4
Audi A6
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
5
Audi Q5
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
6
Benz C230
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
7
BMW 325
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
8
BMW 328
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
9
BMW 5
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
10
Buick 3800
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
11
Buick Enclave
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
12
Buick Reggae
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
13
Chevy Blazer
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
14
Chevy Cavalier
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
15
Chevy Cobalt
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
16
Chevy Corvette
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
17
Chevy Cruze
8
0.030888031
-1.510209777
-0.046647406
18
Chevy Equionox
5
0.019305019
-1.71432976
-0.033095169
19
Chevy Impala
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
20
Chevy Malibu
8
0.030888031
-1.510209777
-0.046647406
21
Chevy Silverado
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
22
Chevy Venture
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
23
Chevy Volt
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
24
Chrysler 300
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
25
Chrysler Pacifica
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
26
Chrysler Sebring
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
27
Chrysler T+C
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
28
Dodge 1500
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
29
Dodge Caliber
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
30
Dodge Dakota
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
31
Dodge Intrepid
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
32
Dodge Journey
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
33
Dodge Neon
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
34
Ford "VAN"
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
35
Ford Contour
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
36
Ford Edge
4
0.015444015
-1.811239773
-0.027972815
37
Ford Escape
19
0.073359073
-1.134546163
-0.083229255
38
Ford Explorere
6
0.023166023
-1.635148514
-0.037879888
39
Ford F150
4
0.015444015
-1.811239773
-0.027972815
40
Ford F250
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
41
Ford Fiesta
6
0.023166023
-1.635148514
-0.037879888
42
Ford Focus
10
0.038610039
-1.413299764
-0.054567558
43
Ford Freestar
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
44
Ford Fusion
4
0.015444015
-1.811239773
-0.027972815
45
Ford Taurus
4
0.015444015
-1.811239773
-0.027972815
46
GMC Denali
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
47
GMC Terrain
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
48
Honda Accord
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
49
Honda Civic
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
50
Honda CRV
5
0.019305019
-1.71432976
-0.033095169
51
Honda Fit
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
52
Honda Pilot
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
53
Honda Tuscon
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
54
Hummer H3
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
55
Hyundai Sonata
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
56
Hyundi GT
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
57
Jeep Grand Cherokee
15
0.057915058
-1.237208505
-0.071653002
58
Jeep Liberty
15
0.057915058
-1.237208505
-0.071653002
59
Jeep Patriot
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
60
Jeep V8
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
61
Jeep Wranger
9
0.034749035
-1.459057255
-0.050700831
62
KIA Sorento
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
63
KIA Soul
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
64
Kia Sportage
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
65
Land Rover Discovery
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
66
Lexus E5300
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
67
Mazda 6
3
0.011583012
-1.936178509
-0.022426778
68
Mazda CX9
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
69
Mercedes C300
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
70
Mercury Grand Marquis
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
71
Mercury Milan
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
72
Mercury Sable
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
73
Mini Cooper
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
74
Mitsubishi GT
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
75
Monterey Premier
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
76
Mustang GT
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
77
Nissan Armada
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
78
Nissan Centra
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
79
Nissan Maxima
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
80
Nissan Murano
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
81
Nissan SEV6
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
82
Plymoth Grand Voyager
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
83
Pontiac G6
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
84
Pontiac GP
5
0.019305019
-1.71432976
-0.033095169
85
Pontiac Torrent
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
86
Pontiac Trans Am
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
87
Pontiac Vibe
3
0.011583012
-1.936178509
-0.022426778
88
Range Rover
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
89
Saab 2.3T
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
90
Saab 93
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
91
Saturn Ion
6
0.023166023
-1.635148514
-0.037879888
92
Saturn Outlook
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
93
Saturn Vue
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
94
Subaru Forester
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
95
Subaru Impreza
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
96
Subaru Legacy
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
97
Subaru Outback
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
98
Toyota 4Runner
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
99
Toyota Camry
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
100
Toyota Prius
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
101
Toyota RAV4
2
0.007722008
-2.112269768
-0.016310963
102
Toyota Sienna
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
103
Toyota Tacoma
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
104
Volvo V70
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
105
VW Beetle
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
106
VW Jetta
4
0.015444015
-1.811239773
-0.027972815
107
VW Passat
1
0.003861004
-2.413299764
-0.00931776
108
VW Tiguan
3
0.011583012
-1.936178509
-0.022426778







TOTAL
259


-1.83764

4th Hour Student Lot:

i
Species Name
n
p
ln(p)
p*ln(p)
1
Acura RL
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
2
Acura TL
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
3
Acura TSX
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
4
Audi Q5
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
5
Acura MDX
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
6
BMW 328
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
7
BMW 530
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
8
BMW 325
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
9
Buick Regal
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
10
Buick Lacrosse
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
11
Buick Enclave
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
12
Buick Century
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
13
Chevy Cavalier
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
14
Chevy Equinox
4
0.015094
-4.19344
-0.0633
15
Chevy Astro
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
16
Chevy Malibu
6
0.022642
-3.78797
-0.08577
17
Chevy Trail Blazer
3
0.011321
-4.48112
-0.05073
18
Chevy Siverado
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
19
Chevy Cobalt
4
0.015094
-4.19344
-0.0633
20
Chevy Venture
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
21
Chevy Cruze
10
0.037736
-3.27714
-0.12367
22
Chevy Impala
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
23
Chevy Corvette
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
24
Cadillac SLS
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
25
Cadillac El Dorado
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
26
Cadillac Escalade
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
27
Cadillac CTS
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
28
Chrysler 200
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
29
Chrysler Pacifica
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
30
Chrysler PT Cruiser
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
31
Chrysler Town and Country
3
0.011321
-4.48112
-0.05073
32
Dodge Dakota
3
0.011321
-4.48112
-0.05073
33
Dodge Caliber
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
34
Dodge Durango
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
35
Dodge Ram
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
36
Dodge Neon
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
37
Dodge Strarus
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
38
Dodge Trepid
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
39
Ford F150
6
0.022642
-3.78797
-0.08577
40
Ford Escape
24
0.090566
-2.40168
-0.21751
41
Ford Focus
15
0.056604
-2.87168
-0.16255
42
Ford Taurus
6
0.022642
-3.78797
-0.08577
43
Ford Explorer
7
0.026415
-3.63382
-0.09599
44
Ford Fiesta
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
45
Ford Contour
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
46
Ford Fusion
4
0.015094
-4.19344
-0.0633
47
Ford Mustang
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
48
Ford Freestar
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
49
GMC Terrain
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
50
GMC Yukon
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
51
GMC Sierra
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
52
GMC Jimmy
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
53
Honda Pilot
4
0.015094
-4.19344
-0.0633
54
Honda Accord
3
0.011321
-4.48112
-0.05073
55
Honda CRV
6
0.022642
-3.78797
-0.08577
56
Honda Civic
3
0.011321
-4.48112
-0.05073
57
Honda Element
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
58
Honda Odyssey
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
59
Hyundai Tucson
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
60
Hummer H3
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
61
Jeep Liberty
18
0.067925
-2.68936
-0.18267
62
Jeep Grand Cherokee
12
0.045283
-3.09482
-0.14014
63
Jeep Cherokee
6
0.022642
-3.78797
-0.08577
64
Jeep Wrangler
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
65
Jeep Patriot
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
66
Kia Fotre
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
67
Kia Sportage
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
68
Kia Sorento
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
69
Kia Soul
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
70
Land Rover Range Rover
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
71
Land Rover Free Lander
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
72
Lincoln Continental
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
73
Lincon MKX
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
74
Lexus 350
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
75
Lexus 300
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
76
Mazda 6
4
0.015094
-4.19344
-0.0633
77
Mazda CX9
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
78
Mercury Grand Merquis
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
79
Mercury Monterey
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
80
Mercury Mariner
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
81
Mercury Sable
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
82
Mercedes C300
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
83
Mercedes C280
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
84
Merceded C230
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
85
Mercedes A6
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
86
Mini-Cooper
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
87
Nissan Armada
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
88
Nissan Sentra
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
89
Nissan Morano
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
90
Nissan Maxima
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
91
Plymoth Grand Voyager
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
92
Pontiac Aztec
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
93
Pontiac Grand AM
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
94
Pontiac Grand Prix
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
95
Pontiac Vibe
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
96
Pontiac G6
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
97
Saab 95
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
98
Saab 93
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
99
Saturn Outlook
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
100
Saturn Vue
3
0.011321
-4.48112
-0.05073
101
Subaru Impreza
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
102
Subaru Outback
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
103
Subaru Legacy
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
104
Subaru Forester
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
105
Toyota Legacy
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
106
Toyota Prius
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
107
Toyota Rav 4
2
0.007547
-4.88658
-0.03688
108
Toyota Corolla
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
109
Toyota Tacoma
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
110
Volkswagon Jetta
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
111
Volkswagon Eurovan
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106
112
Volvo V70
1
0.003774
-5.57973
-0.02106







TOTAL
265


-4.19953