Boreal Forests

Jacob Saroli
Climate
-Also called Evergreen coniferous forests or taigas
-Found in the arctic tundra in northern regions across North America, Asia, and Europe
-Winters are long, dry, and extremely cold
-Usually 50-100 frost free days
-Records have shown the temperature to be -100 degrees Fahrenheit
-In the northernmost taiga, sunlight is available only 6-8 hours a day
-Summers are short, with mild to warm temperatures

Plant Adaptations
-The small, needle-shaped, waxy-coated leaves of coniferous evergreen trees can withstand the intense cold and drought of winter when snow blankets the ground.
-Some Boreal Forest plants have adapted around the cold, harsh winters, and can extend their growing season
-Most Boreal Forest trees have a shallow root system so they can grow in soil that is not frozen. Black spruce trees can grow in soil at only 20 inches deep.
-Evergreens can also photosynthesize slowly when there is light
-Trees develop thick bark that protects against ground fires
-Examples include: Gymnosperm Trees, Evergreen trees, the deciduous alder, birch, and aspen

Animal Adaptations
-Many Boreal Forest animals hibernate during the harsh winters
-Many animals have developed an extra layer of fur to protect themselves from the bitter cold
-Some animals such as the snowshoe hare change their colors to blend in with the snow in order to reduce the chance of them being hunted
-Animals such as the Lynx have developed snowshoes in order to protect them from the snow
-Moose have adapted to being so large that even the coldest days do not affect them

Symbiotic Relationships- SAUL LEVIN

Commensalism
Pseudoscorpions ride on brown bears for transportation. (An example of Phoresy)
A bald eagle doesn't affect a tree by making a nest in it.

Parasitism
Winter Ticks live on moose and other similar animals causing mild to severe disease.
Brainworms eat Caribou's brains and unintentionally kill them.

Mutualism
Moss protects the tree it grows on while the tree gives it a place to live.
Fungus and algae work together to survive by combining to make lichen.

Predation
Moose, Elk-------->Wolf
Insect------>Small Bird------->Owl
Squirrell------->Fox------>Lynx
Snowshoe Rabbit-------->Wolverine