Brittany Kashat

3rd hour


CLIMATE
  • very hot and dry
  • winter is very mild and usually about 10 degrees Celsius
  • summer is so hot and dry at 40 degrees Celsius, that fires and droughts are very common
  • only gets about 10-17 inches of rain all year, and most of it comes in the winter
external image scrub.jpg

PLANT ADAPTATIONS
  1. Because of the long period of dryness in the summer, only plants with hard leaves can survive. Examples include Scrub Oaks, Chamiso Shrubs, Pines, and Cork and Olive trees.
  2. Most plant leaves are also hairy, or have needles, so that they can collect the moisture out of the air and use it.
  3. Because there are many fires, some plants' seeds will lie dormant until there is a fire. Their seed casings will crack and the seed will sprout only then.
  4. Some plant leaves are leathery, in order to keep the moisture in the leaves. Examples include Thyme, Oregano, and Rosemary.
  5. There are also fire resistant plants, such as the Coyote Brush.
Coyote Brush
Coyote Brush
Chamiso Shrub
Chamiso Shrub
pine needles
pine needles


ANIMAL ADAPTATIONS
  1. The animals don't need a lot of water to survive.
  2. Many animals are nocturnal because it is too hot for them to be active during the day.
  3. Lots of animals burrow underground to escape the heat in the day. Examples include squirrels, jack rabbits, gophers, and lizards.
  4. Some mice and lizards secrete a semi-solid urine, in order to reduce water loss.
  5. Some animals are small so that they can hide in the protection of the thick, short shrubs. Examples include quail, wrentit, thrasher, and grysbok.
Jack Rabbit
Jack Rabbit
Cactus Wren
Cactus Wren
Grysbok
Grysbok


SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS:


PREDATOR/PREY
  • Producers- Cactus, Sagebrush, grass, seeds
  • Primary Consumers- Wild Goat, Jackrabbit, Termite, Grasshopper
  • Secondary Consumers- Skunk, Aardwolf, Cactus Wren
  • Tertiary Consumers- Puma and Grey Fox

PARASITISM
  1. Flea and coyote. The flea benefits by drinking the coyote's blood, but the coyote is harmed, because it is losing its blood.
  2. Chaparral Broomrape and shrubs, specifically Chamise. The parasitic plant, the Chaparral Broomrape, gets its energy by attaching itself to Chamise roots, thereby harming the Chamise because it is taking away the Chamise's energy.
Coyote itching fleas
Coyote itching fleas


COMMENSALISM
  1. Cactus Wren and low, thorny bushes, such as cacti. The birds use the bush as a home to guard their young ones, and the thorns and branches provide shelter from predators, while the bush gains is neither helped nor harmed.
  2. Red-Winged Blackbird and a Torrey Pine. The bird eats the seeds off of the ground from the Torrey Pine, but the tree is neither helped nor harmed.
Cactus Wren in a cactus
Cactus Wren in a cactus


MUTUALISM
  1. Ceanothus and the soil fungus, Frankia. Ceanothus is a plant, and when the roots and the fungus combine, the roots supply the fungus with sugar. This extra energy source allows the fungus to take nitrogen from the atmosphere to make ammonia and amino acids. This gives the Ceanothus its very own, personal source of nitrogen. So, the fungus get gets energy, in the form of sugar from the Ceanothus, and the plant gets easy access to nitrogen from the fungus.
  2. Yucca plant and Yucca moth. The Yucca plant can't pollinate itself to grow more seeds, so the yucca moth pollinates the plant and lays its eggs inside the plant. When the larvae hatch, they feed on the seeds of the plant, but not all of the seeds. So, the moth pollinates the plant, and the plant provides food for the larvae.
Yucca Plant and Yucca Moth
Yucca Plant and Yucca Moth