Taiga biome
Tess Relle

Climate
  • Has very long and cold winters
    • It can be -14 degrees
    • Heavy snowball
    • The summers are short and they are cool in temperature.
      • The average temperature in the summer is from 64 degrees to 72 degrees
      • Humid and rainy
        • Average annual rainfall is 33 inches
        • There is often no cloud cover in this biome so the temperatures can drop very fast at night.
        • It does warm up enough in the spring for ice to melt

Plant adaptations:
  1. Many trees are always green so that plants can photosynthesize right away when temperature rises
Ex: Evergreen trees
  1. Many trees have needle-like leaves which shape loses less water and sheds snow more easily than broad leaves
Ex: White spruce trees
  • Have “cones” used to protect developing seeds:
    • Cypresses
    • Cedars
    • Yew (KE)
  1. Some plants have a waxy coating on their needles to prevent evaporation
Ex: Douglas Fir
  • Don’t lose leaves in Winter to save energy:
    • Junipers
    • Evergreens
    • Cedars (KE)
  1. The plant’s needles are dark in color allowing more solar heat to be absorbed
  2. Many trees have branches that droop downward to help shed excess snow to keep the branches from breaking.
Ex: Birch and aspen trees shaped like upside-down cones to protect branches from harsh winds:
    • Coast Redwood
    • Pines
    • Spruces (KE)
Animal adaptations:
  1. Animals that live in the taiga biome are able to change their color based on the time of year. That helps them to remain camouflaged from predators.
    1. Ex: The ermine has a dark brown summer coat and it changes to white coat in the winter.
    2. Some animals have adapted to life in the taiga by hibernating when temperatures drop
    • Grizzly bears avoid the coldest weather by going into their dens in the fall and staying there until the early spring
    1. Some animals have thicker coats in the winter and they shed them in the summer months.
      • Migration to warmer places to avoid freezing:
        • Waxwings
        • Woodpecker
        • Hermit thrushes (KE)
    2. Some animals have physical characteristics that have allowed them to live successful
      • Snowshoes-Growing hair on footpads to keep the bottoms of the feet warm and walk easier on the snow:
        • Lynx
        • Hare
        • Fox/Coyote (KE)
    • The Canada lynx's wide paws work like snowshoes. They distribute the lynx's weight, and help it move in the snow
    1. Burrowing is storing food, a behavioral adaptation that helps ensure winter survival.
      • Offspring born in spring/summer, easier to survive warmer temperatures:
        • River Otters
        • Ermines
        • Minks (KE)

Symbiotic relationships

  • Predator/Prey (food web) berries, seeds, shrubs, moss (producers)->porcupine, moose, squirrels, insects (primary consumers)->bears, foxes, birds,bats (secondary consumers)->skunks, minks, wolverines, weasels (top consumers). A defense mechanism for porcupine are log pointy infectious outer shell. (KE)
  • Parasitism
    • Ticks and Elk- The ticks live on the elk
    • Brain worms and Caribou- the brain worms eat parts of the caribou’s brain
    • Mutualism
      • Moss and tree- the moss protects the tree while the tree provides it with a home
      • Black spruce and lichen- lichen gets food from the dead matter of the tree and gives the tree nutrients.
      • Commensalism
        • Bird and tree- the bird lives within a nest on a tree. The tree provides protection and the tree is not harmed.
        • Fungi and trees- The fungi gets food from the decomposing tree, but the tree is not helped nor hurt because it's dead.