Deciduous Forests

Sara Benson

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Climate:
  • Moist Continental Climate
  • Latitude range from 23 degrees north to 38 degrees south
  • Moderate temperatures that change significantly with the season
  • Long, warm summers and cold, but not too severe winters
  • Abundant precipitation

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5 Plant Adaptions
  • Broad Leaves on a Tree Capture Enough Sunlight to Sustain the Tree
    • Maple Trees have very broad leaves that allow them to capture lots of sunlight to sustain themselves
  • Thick Bark To Protect Against Cold Winters
    • Oak Trees have very thick bark so they are able to sustain themselves during winter months
  • Trees Drop Leaves in Fall to Minimize Water Loss
    • Hickory Trees drop their leaves in the fall and regrow them in the spring
  • Wildflowers Grow in the Early Spring on the Forest Floor Before the Trees Drop Their Leaves and Drown Them Out
    • The yellow marsh marigold flower grows on the forest floor in the spring before the leaves drop in the fall and cover them
  • Understory Trees Are More Tolerant to Shade Than Canopy Trees
    • Sycamore trees are taller than Oak trees and therefore the Oak trees are more tolerant to shade.
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5 Animal Adaptions
  • Many Birds Migrate to Warmer Places So They Can Find Food More Easily
    • Bald eagles migrate south for winter months and return for spring
  • Mammals Hibernate In Cold Winter Months
    • Bears hibernate in caves during winter months
  • Animals Store Large Amounts of Food For Cold Winter Months
    • Squirrels store nuts in trees for winter months
  • Animals Grow Extra Fur for Winter Months
    • Wolves grow a thick coat of fur during the fall to keep them warm during the winter and shed it in the spring
  • Change in Fur Color with Change of Seasons
    • Rabbits change fur color from brown to white with the change of seasons to camouflage from predators
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Symbiotic Relationships
  • Predator/Prey-
    • Producers: Mountain Winterberry, White Oak, Shagbark Hickory
    • Primary Consumers: Gray Squirrel, Long-tailed Weasel, May Beetle, White-Foodted Mouse
    • Secondary Consumers: Wood Frog, Racer, Long-tailed weasel, Broad-winged hawk, Hairy Woodpecker
    • Decomposers: Fungi, Bacteria
  • Parasitism
    • Parasitism occurs in a deciduous forest between fungi and a tree. Fungus grows on trees and breaks them down for nutrients, this harms the tree, therefore making it weaker.This benefits the fungus and harms the tree.
    • Parasitism also occurs between a caterpillar and a wasp. Caterpillars lay eggs on leaves and wasps inject them so that their larvae can feed inside the body of the caterpillar, but avoid vital organs. This harms the caterpillar and benefits the wasp larvae.
  • Commensalism
    • The relationship between a squirrel and a tree in a is a commensalism relationship in a deciduous forest.The squirrel is given a home and shelter by the tree and is not harmed in any way
    • The relationship between a bird and a tree is also commensalism because the bird is able to build a nest and thrive in this environment provided by the tree. This benefits the bird and does not harm the tree.
  • Mutualism
    • Bees and flowers participate in a mutualism relationship in deciduous forests. They engage in pollination which benefits the bees because it gives them food and also benefits the flowers because they are able to sexually reproduce for greater genetic diversity
    • The relationship between a bird and deer is also mutualism because the bird is able to get food by eating bugs off the fur of the deer and the deer benefits from being cleaned