Tundra
Tundra Biome- Lily Slavin
Tundra comes from the Finnish word "tunturia" which means treeless plain. There are three types of tundra- Arctic (Northern hemisphere), Alpine (mountain tops), and Antarctic (Southern hemisphere).


Climate
Alpine Tundra
  • Cold climate caused by low air pressure and high altitude
  • The temperature never exceeds 10oC
  • Little atmospheric protection, so there is high exposure to UV rays
  • Soil is very drained
  • Growing season is 180 days
Arctic Tundra
  • Cold desert-like conditions
  • Average winter temperature is -34oC
  • Average summer temperature is 3-12oC
  • Yearly precipitation is 15-25 cm
  • Layer of permafrost covers the ground
  • Growing season in 50-60 days
Plant Adaptations
  1. Grow in clumps to protect each other from to wind and cold
  2. Size- Small (less than 12 inches) and grow close to the ground to keep them from freezing
Ex: bearberry
  1. Color- dark color to help them absorb heat

Ex :

  • Labrador Tea

  • Red Twig

  • Arctic Rose (KE)

  1. Some plants are covered in hair to keep them warm
Ex: Arctic willow
  • Labrador Tea

  • Diamond Leaf

  • Pasque Flower (KE)



  1. Some plants have flowers that follow the sun, focusing the solar energy onto the plant to keep it warm
Ex: Pasque flower
  • Arctic Poppy

  • Arctic Avens (KE)


Animal Adaptations
  1. Camouflage- some animals’ fur changes color with the season in order to blend in with the environment
  • Ex: arctic fox
  1. Diet- some animals have adapted their diet so they can eat whatever is available to them
  • Ex: ermine
  1. Fur- a lot of animals have developed a very thick coat of fur to keep them warm
  • Ex: grizzly bear
  • ** Hollow Hair:
      • Polar Bear
      • Woodland Caribou
      • Reindeer (KE)

    • Hibernate: (KE)
      • Skunks
      • Chipmunks
      • Some Bears
  1. Many animals have developed a thick layer of fat to keep them warm
  2. Some animals have adapted to use solar heat to save energy in keeping them warm
  • Ex: ground squirrel
    • Insulating Feathers:

      • Ptarmigan

      • Penguin

      • Giant Petrel (KE)

Symbiotic Relationships

  • Predator/Prey: Plankton (producers)->krill, shrimp, squid, small fish (primary consumers)->whales, seals, fish,penguins (secondary consumers)->bears, killer whale (top predator). Defense mechanisms are loud trumpet cries by the Trumpeter Swan (KE)

  • Mutualism- Lichens are made up of fungi and algae. The lichen supports and protects the algae and the algae has chlorophyll to make food

  • Parasitism- tapeworms in caribou and other animals
  • Commensalism- caribou digs a hole in the permafrost and partially exposes buries mammals which the arctic fox eats
  • Predation- the wolf preys on the caribou
Andrew Colton
Types of Tundra
  • Arctic: northern hemisphere north of the taiga belt
  • Antarctic: southern hemisphere south of the taiga belt
  • Alpine: in mountains worldwide in any mountain range

1. Climate:
  • One of earths coldest, harshest biomes
  • Average Temp. of 10-20 degrees ferenheit
  • 50-60 days of summer with 24 hour sunlight and the rest are cold harsh winter days
  • Permafrost about 1500 feet into the earth
  • Snow covered
  • Windy and Dry Cold
  • 6-10 inches of rain per year (KE)
2.Plant Adaptations:
  • Plants grow in cracks of rocks for protection and warmth
  • Plants growing on rocks or on other plants that can penetrate the abyssal permafrost
  • Small plants due to lack of nutrients in soil
  • "Hairy" plants and grow in clumps to keep warm
  • Dark colored leaves to collect as much sunlight as possible due to the limited amount
3.Animal Adaptations:
  • Arctic Fox has shorter ears, a short body, and thick fur to limit skin's exposure to harsh, frigid air
  • Fur or feathers being dark in the summer and white in the winter
  • Thick layers of fat or fur with short stocky limbs
    • *** Insulating Fur (2 coats):
        • Polar Bears
        • Arctic Fox
        • Wolverine (KE)

  • Change their diet based on season and availible food
  • Some animals have proteins that act as "anti-freeze" keeping their internal organs from freezing up
    • *** Fish have slow metabolisms (2 degrees Celsius):
        • Polar Fishes
        • Sculpins
        • Eelpouts (KE)

  • Small mammals have begun using what little sun they get to heat by solar heating or sitting out in the sun
4.Symbiotic Relationships:
  • Predation: The brown bear and the salmon. The Bear uses the methods of pursuit and ambush. Here the bear paces along the side of the river waiting for a fish and then attacks it. The fish's only defense tactic is to use the behavioral strategy of swimming upstream or into the depths
  • Obligatory Mutualism: The caribou eating a shrub and then spreading the seeds through feces. This helps the shrub reproduce which is necessary to its survival as well as the caribou getting food/energy
  • Facultative Mutualism: Lichen in which the fungus and the algae grow in unison providing for each other but either could live without the other.
  • Parasitism: Tape worm in any host species as well as ticks and mosquitos
  • Commensalism: A caribou or other large mammal clears a path of snow in which a fox who is following it can get to plants or animals living below snow.
        • Also a fox following a large predator can scavenge the remains of the kill.